How heritable is Schizophrenia?
I was reviewing multiple choice questions for an answer bank, and the answer to the rate of schizophrenia among monozygotic twins was given as 50%. I thought this is not that high. So I went had a look a the data. In 2003, Sullivan and Kendler performed a meta analysis. They found. Seven of the […] Read More
Confounders, observation, caution.
A confounder is a factor, generally not measured a priori, that may be causing an observed correlation but was not measured or allowed for. The usual method to deal with this in observational studies is to correct for as many factors as present using multivariate analysis. These analyses may have to extend to include familial […] Read More
Three papers, three pictures.
I was putting together a set of slides for teaching tonight and inadvertently ran into some recent data. All these papers are open source, and I will be giving references. The first, by Zhou and others, looks at “left behind children” — that is children who are placed in the care of relatives while their […] Read More
Risk of bias, immigration, and mood.
Do immigrants into a new nation have a greater risk of mood disorders? The standard approach has been to say that this is due to bias of measurement, or institutionalised racism. But minorities do have an increased risk of mood disorders: this may vary somewhat by the immigrant culture and the host culture. There have […] Read More
Is this generation fragile or cosseted?
Yesterday I was having lunch with a colleague. We both do sessions in the psychiatric emergency room. And we are seeing young men, acutely suicidal, following rejection by a partner. We both reflected on our young years. We were rejected. We were shunned… and my colleague said “But you had resilience”. Both of us had […] Read More